NEWSLETTER: Spring 2003

The Canadian International Institute of Applied Negotiation
201-280 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5G8
Tel: 613-237-9050 Fax: 613-237-6952

To receive your next issue of CIIAN NEWS electronically, please send us an email and we will be glad to oblige you.

Senior Editor: Pierre LeBlanc

Layout and Design: Heather Pincock

Inside this issue:

Pierre LeBlanc
International Programs Update
Flaurie Storie
Conflict Prevention and Development:
Rena Ramkay
Domestic Programs Update
Heidi Ruppert
Conflict Studies
Rena Ramkay
Peacebuilding Challenges in the New Millennium
David Lord
Programs:Carleton University
Programs:Royal Roads University
Bridging Troubled Waters, Book Review
Peter Bishop
RPDR Profile
Francine Titley
Upcoming CIIAN Courses

ADR in the Crosshairs of Manufactured Conflict                                                            Top
Pierre LeBlanc
The SARS disaster/fiasco and the Mad Cow scare are testing Canadians' mettle, including their collective ability to maintain societal and national cohesion. Columnists and others have correctly identified the interregional rifts and divisions that these crises are generating in Canada, or at least exacerbating. During the first SARS outbreak, Premier Ralph Klein, in a fit of exemplary statesmanship, suggested that he would not travel to Toronto unless absolutely necessary. Not to be outdone, the Ontario Minister of Agriculture recently suggested that Ontario should temporarily ban the import of Alberta beef. Although she later recanted, the damage was done. These lessons and behavior models are not lost on young and old alike.

Some opinion fashioners are bemoaning the loss of the wonderful solidarity Canadians showed during the Quebec and Manitoba Floods and during the Ice Storm and professing confusion as to how this could have happened. Unfortunately, these same columnists and others have greatly contributed to the undermining of our collective self by blithely justifying and promoting policies that blame the victims, seek to demonize the other, and promote punishment and revenge over mutual support and collective responsibility. And they have remained largely silent on the fact that Ontario's seeming inability to contain SARS may well be a consequence of the persistent undermining and fragmentation of the Health System.

This sea-change in Canadian attitudes is not surprising in and of itself. The disasters of the late nineties, although intense, threatened only the people of the areas affected. SARS and Mad Cow Disease are a threat to all Canadians. But the causes of the lack of empathy and national cohesion run deeper than this.

Since the mid-nineties, a politic of hurt, blame and suspicion has been fabricated in this country and imposed by the likes of Harris, Klein, Martin ('95 budget) et al.The undermining and fragmentation of the collective Canadian "id" has been accelerated by 9/11 and the Bush politics of social attrition and mortal redemption.Rabid globalisation and Bilderberg-ish[1] short-sighted egoism and irresponsibility feed the fear and distrust which drive the "tearing apart" of this country and its society. Not only are we all rapidly becoming endemically suspicious of the other provinces and trying to get a leg up, we are deeply distrustful of our next-door neighbor and see him as a threat to our security, our general well-being and, not the least, our privileges.The current trend will get worse and is a logical conclusion of the "evil alien» mindset that is highly degenerative of the national social fabric.

This socio-political straightjacket, imposed by either economic dominance or military might, or both, may be in the process of husbanding a fundamental shift in Canadian values. Solidarity, reserve and respect are rapidly giving way to might, bluster and blame, the fertility drugs of distrust, hate and conflict. This paradigm shift has to concern ADR theorists and practitioners everywhere.

Conflict is in! Conflict prevention and resolution are out! Thus, the prospect of enlightened government policy support for ADR programs and practices holds little promise beyond lip service as the political fearmongers and the apostles of the so-called "security industry" orchestrate the highjacking of public resources from the principles of wellness, equity and social cohesion to a pervasive and perverse cocktail of shredded civil rights, criminalisation of dissent and, dangerously, criminalisation of poverty. The ADR community has its work cut out and must work hard at counteracting this paradigm shift. Or at least at imagining and mapping out avenues for hope and societal reconstruction once this newly minted paradigm collapses on its own unsustainability.

[1]The Bilderberg Conference secretly brings together the world's 100 leading business moguls and political power-brokers to map out the course of so-called globalisation and the geo-political master design. Much of what drives world events has been blueprinted ahead of time at this annual conference.

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS UPDATE                                                                    Top
Our World Has Changed
Flaurie Storie

This moment in history demands that we examine seriously and extensively whether we are convinced of the efficacy of force when it comes to our security.

After the suicide attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), there were cries of "our world has changed". At the time, including in this Newsletter, I questioned whose world had changed. Just what was the impact, if any, throughout the world other than "our world"?

In light of the invasion of Afghanistan and now Iraq by the United States and the United Kingdom, it can be claimed that the world is changing. 9/11 launched a moment in history that may have disastrous effects for years to come. There were choices to be made as to what the response to 9/11 would be. And as we have witnessed, the choice has been unbridled force. A new cycle of violence has been unleashed.

The road map that the US has selected and outlined in the Bush Doctrine pushes the world in an extremely dangerous direction. What options are there for us to counteract this empire building to which we are now bearing witness? As Jonathan Schell questions, "How do you wean politics from its reliance on force"?

A partial answer lies in the world-wide non-violent protests to the invasion of Iraq as well as in other directions in specific regions of the world. An analytical look at the collapse of the Soviet Union shows that an iterative process of civil society action made a substantial contribution to the implosion of that regime. The creation of the European Union suggests that the paradigm of nation-building and absolute state sovereignty can give way to the possibility of different state arrangements.

This moment in history demands that we examine seriously and extensively whether we are convinced of the efficacy of force when it comes to our security. Or is it time to give cooperative power a chance?

(F. Storie acknowledges that the thinking represented here has been informed by Jonathan Schell. His book, The Unconquerable World, was published in May.)

CIIAN's International Activities

The International Program is actively involved with a number of initiatives at this point in time. The Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities, Pakistan is moving forward after a tentative start due to the invasion of Afghanistan. F. Storie, the Project's Director, spent time in Pakistan in November 2002 and in February 2003. As one might anticipate, the security situation on the ground is always a question mark. One interesting potential emerging from CIIAN/CBIE's work with the Pakistani partners is the possibility of a comparative study on the conceptualizations of citizenship, human rights, and conflict resolution by Pakistanis and Canadians.

In a past newsletter, we highlighted some of the findings of a review of the Ministry of Justice's mediation program in Sri Lanka. For example, a disturbing form of coercive mediation appeared to be the norm. The Ministry has moved forward with a number of the Review's recommendations including standards of practice and a code of conduct for mediators supported by a revised training program. Its directives are to be commended for embracing these changes.
The year-long plus peace process in Sri Lanka has taken a dangerous turn. Norway and its officials had acted as facilitators and now as mediators between the government and the LTTE. However, both Japan and the United States have entered the process. For example, there was an AID seminar in Washington in March to which the LTTE was not officially invited. The US still lists the LTTE as a terrorist group. With the balance of power having been substantially tipped in favor of the government, the LTTE has withdrawn from discussions.

CIIAN has begun formulating a program for collaborative interaction with development NGOs who are pursuing peacebuilding programs in conflict zones. The program focuses on programming through a conflict lens. See R. Ramkay's article in this newsletter. Initiatives in Nepal and one or two African countries are being pursued through partners on the ground. Keep tuned for developments.

DOMESTIC PROGRAMS UPDATE                                                                               Top
MDR and CIIAN: Continued Collaboration

Heidi Ruppert

In the Fall issue of CIIAN News, CIIAN and MDR Associates Conflict Resolution Inc. announced its collaboration wherein MDR Associates has been licensed to develop and deliver CIIAN's Domestic Training Program across the country. MDR Associates is a company devoted to dispute resolution practice and training and whose associates have many years of experience in conflict resolution and training in all areas of conflict management and conflict prevention.

CIIAN's Practitioner Program was founded in the development of training programs with a strong integration of theoretical knowledge and practical skills delivered by highly seasoned dispute resolution professionals. We have maintained the philosophy of this core foundation in our development of the training materials and the professional development of trainers.

We now offer four, four-day modules in the Practitioner Program:

Module I: Conflict Theory, Negotiation and Introduction to Mediation This Module provides an extensive immersion into ADR and provides the conflict theory and conflict management skills necessary to embark into the field of conflict resolution. This module also provides participants with the theory and practice of interest based negotiations and how to negotiate in all environments.

Module II: Mediation In this module students will learn how to mediate. They will study and practice the complete mediation process from pre-mediation screening and interviewing, through to the mediation session, agreement writing and follow-up.

Module III: Advanced Negotiation and Mediation This Module deepens the skills and competencies of participants in negotiation and mediation. The challenges of assisting in more conflicted disputes, including multi-party, multi issue disputes are dealt with in a clinical skills development learning environment.

Module IV: Dispute Resolution in the Workplace This Module focuses on negotiation and mediation skills specific to the workplace environment. Participants will explore how to use interest-based techniques in the workplace environment, performance management and human rights/harassment issues. Both unionized and non-unionized work environments will be explored.

The modules can be taken individually or as part of an overall program. Upon completion of Modules I and II, students are granted a Certificate in ADR; and, upon completion of Modules III and IV, students are granted an Advanced Certificate in ADR.

The courses have been extremely well received by participants. In particular, students have commented on the integration of theory and practical skills and the high level of instruction. Students also like the smaller class sizes and the one-on-one attention.

Here are a few comments from participants in our recent courses:

"Best course I have been on - trainers inspired interaction and didn't let the course go off track - kept it interesting"

"I will be able to apply the learning in my personal life and everyday at work"

"Definitely a value-added learning experience"

"Excellent knowledgeable, humorous teachers - excellent preparation and delivery of materials"

The upcoming dates for Modules I to IV in Ottawa are as follows:
Module I: August 19-22, 2003
February 16-19, 2004
August 17-20, 2004

Module II August 25-28, 2003
March 22-25, 2004
August 23-26, 2004

Module III October 20-23, 2003
October 18-21, 2004

Module IV November 24-27, 2003
November 22-25, 2003

Specialized Workshops

In addition to the Practitioner Program, we are responding to our clients' requests for programs that offer continued learning and skill development that are one and two days in length. These workshops are intended to provide participants with focused and intense learning in identified areas.

Ben Hoffman Scholarship

Last winter, MDR Associates established the Ben Hoffman Scholarship in honor of Dr. Ben Hoffman, founder of the CIIAN. The Ben Hoffman Scholarship is awarded annually and is open to anyone from the Canadian not-for-profit sector who shows interest and promise in the field of Alternative Dispute Resolution and who uses ADR skills in the course of his or her normal employment duties. The Scholarship covers the tuition fees related to Module I and Module II of CIIAN's Practitioner Program. A copy of the application form for the scholarship is included in this newsletter.

New Head Offices and Training Facility

In August, MDR Associates and CIIAN will be moving to a new location with an excellent training facility on site. We are very excited about this move. The new address will be:
280 Albert Street, Suite 201
Ottawa, ON K1P 5G8

For more information on the Practitioner Program, Specialized Workshops and the Ben Hoffman Scholarship please contact:
Heidi Ruppert
Director, CIIAN Domestic Training Program
200 Elgin Street, Suite 701
Ottawa, ON K2P 1L5
Tel: 237-9050
Fax: 238-3340

Peacebuilding Challenges in the New Millennium                                                              Top
David Lord

Canada can and must continue to increase its role and effectiveness in peacebuilding through leadership, sustained commitment and capacity building.

More effective peacebuilding interventions are primarily dependent on political commitment and the dedication of adequate financial and human resources beyond the limits of budget or electoral cycles.
Excerpts from a background paper prepared for the CPCC Secretariat by David Lord

The Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee, a network of more than 60 Canadian non-governmental organizations and individuals involved in various aspects of conflict prevention, resolution and post-conflict reconstruction and rehabilitation, is primarily concerned with building and sustaining peace internationally.
The following background paper is based on a series of discussions that began in June 2002 among CPCC members and others regarding the foreign policy review process and its content. It also attempts to take into account and complement individual submissions of network members to the current foreign policy dialogue process.
Thanks are due to Mejlina Modanu and David Beal for their initial contributions.

Putting People First in a Changing World

Since the mid-1990s, the Canadian government has emphasized the promotion of people's safety from violence or threat of violence. This aspect of Canadian foreign policy is, in part, a projection of values such as tolerance, democracy and respect for human rights, as well as economic and security considerations. Safeguarding people from violence is an approach widely shared by Canadian non-governmental organizations operating internationally and is evident in the Canadian public's responses to violent conflict around the globe.

The United States-led invasion of Iraq has sent shockwaves around the globe that may take decades to subside. The late dawn of the "new American century" has most recently been marked by the current US administration's indifference to massive global public and diplomatic opposition to war against Iraq and previously by opposition to the establishment of the International Criminal Court, abandonment of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and rejection of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Now there are new questions about how working multilaterally for peace may be affected by unilateral pressures and actions. In addition, the clear and present danger of an upsurge in terrorism has added another dimension to an already complex environment for non-governmental and governmental efforts at building peace.
Canada can and must continue to increase its role and effectiveness in peacebuilding through leadership, sustained commitment and capacity building.

General Recommendations

There is considerable consensus on several core issues among Canadian non-governmental organizations involved in peacebuilding:

  • Promoting human security must remain central to Canadian foreign policy because putting people above other interests reflects shared human values, the reality and complexity of the global environment Canadians are part of, and the need for multilateral foreign policy approaches to meet multifaceted challenges;
  • Continued commitment and adherence to a rules-based international system merit Canada's full support;
  • Canada must strive to develop a more proactive approach to security. This necessitates a full range of responses including: more political attention and increased resources for specific preventive action and reconstructive efforts to address both causes and consequences of violent conflict and minimize the potential for future conflict; increased official and unofficial diplomacy for peaceful conflict resolution; increased development assistance and fairer trade to help address some of the structural causes of violent conflict - under-development, poverty, and resource scarcities; armed forces capable of protecting the vulnerable and carrying out a range of other tasks that contribute to international peace and security.

Conflict Prevention

The Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee has recently joined with the European Centre for Conflict Prevention and others around the world in what is expected to be a sustained process of raising awareness and developing more effective mechanisms to prevent violent conflict. The international non-governmental process on conflict prevention is a concept arising from the UN Secretary-General's Report of June 2001 on the Prevention of Armed Conflict, which specifically mentions the role of civil society in conflict prevention.

Non-governmental and civil society organizations are now beginning to work in concert to:

Strengthen regional networks among civil society practitioners and academics, and weave these together into a global conflict prevention network.

Promote analysis and theoretical development that will help the conflict prevention community play a more effective role in international deliberations.

Produce a UN Action Plan on Conflict Prevention, possibly embodied in a Security Council Resolution, which will guide the international community as it seeks non-violent solutions to armed conflict in the coming decades. This initiative can be an effective vehicle to increase collaborative conflict prevention analysis, process design and action between government and Canadian non-governmental actors and with their partners internationally.


The Government of Canada should engage with Canadian civil society organizations and international partners - the UN, other intergovernmental organizations, regional and local partners - in helping to leverage a long-overdue shift from a culture of reaction to conflict to one of prevention,

That engagement should aim at development of practical, responsive mechanisms and multilateral and multi-sectoral action on emerging conflicts and more effective collaborative conflict prevention efforts on the ground.

Waging Peace

Canadian involvement in peacemaking and peacebuilding takes place through multilateral and multi-sectoral efforts, where a number of governmental and intergovernmental actors, civil society organizations and others are involved in a broad range of activities -- political, relief, development, or security related. In these complex situations, obstacles to effective collaboration include the diversity of potential collaborators, their methods and objectives, differing mandates, capacities, areas of historical engagement and the shortcoming of coordination processes.
More effective peacebuilding interventions are primarily dependent on political commitment and the dedication of adequate financial and human resources beyond the limits of budget or electoral cycles.


Canada can play a more active and visible role in the peaceful resolution and transformation of conflicts by focusing more closely on a limited number of specific conflicts and demonstrating the political will and committing the necessary resources to sustain engagement.

Official diplomacy aimed at conflict prevention, the resolution of existing conflicts or post-conflict efforts to guard against the recurrence of violence can be substantially strengthened through the development of long-term, collaborative strategies with non-governmental actors.

Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Reintegration

Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, Timor, Bosnia, Cambodia, Guatemala and other war-torn societies have demonstrated that while there are many common elements of transitions from war to peace, there are no pat formulas for managing those transitions and no firm guarantees of ultimate success.

Canada, with its imperfections, can and has served as a model of good governance and democratic practice for post-war societies or those seeking to avert widespread conflict. We should continue to encourage these types of processes to take root and flourish. In general, priority issues for promoting better governance and democratization include:

  • Broadening and deepening ongoing public political participation;
  • Developing "spaces and fora for reflection and exchange";
  • Developing skills for participation, dialogue, advocacy and negotiation;
  • Reforming political parties so they become accountable, transparent and responsive;
  • Ensuring oversight of government;
  • Ensuring citizen participation in constitutional reform;
  • Building democratic practices into civil society organizations, particularly those engaged in governance and democratization processes.


Because sustainable peace is ultimately dependent on political and social processes of peaceful conflict resolution and peaceful political change, Canada should focus on promoting better governance and democratization in post-conflict reconstruction and rehabilitation processes.


Canada's foreign policy lacks coherence, with decisions often being made in a reactive and ad hoc manner and without reference to the wide range of policy interests among Canadians, throughout various government departments, and particularly beyond DFAIT, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Department of National Defence. Even between the three traditional foreign policy-focused departments, co-operation has sometimes been tortuous.


Restructuring institutional frameworks and procedures aimed at providing greater coherence in the development and implementation of Canadian foreign policy should include specific input from the non-governmental community involved in human security and peacebuilding issues and be part of a public process;

Cross-sectoral/departmental participants in activities related to peacebuilding should meet on at least a quarterly basis under the auspices of the Interdepartmental Peacebuilding Working Group or the Program Advisory Committee on Human Security and the Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee to establish more consensual understanding of strategic issues and objectives, as well as constructive linkages between different programming initiatives.

A key focus of such interdepartmental/NGO meetings should be to collectively share information, update analysis of conflict or pre-conflict situations, and refine peacebuilding planning and implementation.

Capacity Building

Canada is one of the wealthiest countries in the world and has an under-utilized national capacity to leverage peacebuilding efforts with substantial amounts of targeted development assistance and increased diplomatic engagement.

Canadian civil society actors, academics, diplomats and other officials who have been engaged in peacebuilding for more than a decade represent a tremendous pool to draw on if we choose to be part of a constructive evaluation of peacebuilding efforts. This should lead to development of a framework for strengthening Canadian participation in collaborative peacebuilding activities in countries and regions.


Development of an effective framework for greater Canadian capacity to design, support and implement peacebuilding programs with other international partners should be rooted in a wide-ranging and constructive assessment of international and Canadian peacebuilding efforts to date.

The annual Peacebuilding and Human Security Consultations co-hosted by the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, the Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee and the Canadian Consortium on Human Security should focus on highlighting emerging potential conflicts (prevention), support for existing peace processes (conflict transformation), and reconstruction and rehabilitation challenges (post-conflict peacebuiliding).

Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee
1 Nicholas Street, #510, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 7B7, Canada
Tel: (613) 241-3446 Fax: (613) 241-4846
Coordinator: David Lord

Conflict Prevention and Development: Intersecting Paths                                               Top
Rena Ramkay

CIIAN International has begun work in the conflict prevention field. This agenda emerged in 1997 with the Carnegie Commission's report on "Preventing Deadly Conflict" and has received strong endorsement from UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, in "The Prevention of Armed Conflict" (2001). Other reports and policy papers have subsequently added their voices to the call for preventive measures. The key message behind all these documents is that deadly conflict is avoidable (and very costly in both economic and social terms), and leaders, intergovernmental bodies, international institutions and civil society organizations should devote their resources to preventing conflict, as opposed to reacting to violence once it has emerged. Examples such as the genocide in Rwanda, atrocities in Sierra Leone and ethnic cleansing in the Balkans serve as reminders of the failure of conflict reaction strategies.

It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, for organizations working in the fields of development, humanitarian aid, policy & research in conflict zones to avoid working from a framework of conflict prevention, as it has begun to be the focus of many international program initiatives, as well as the emphasis of funders. Yet the field of conflict prevention has not yet sorted out who is doing what and why. Some NGOs working in conflict zones label their work as "conflict prevention activities", without actually altering their programming in any way. Funders without strong policies in conflict prevention can't be expected to judge one set of activities as better than any others in preventing conflict. Moreover, because of the competition for limited funds to carry out this work, the various actors working in conflict prevention often work in isolation from one another, weakening the preventive impact they could have with coordinated actions.

Early warning systems, such as those developed at FEWER, Saferword and International Alert, combined with solid conflict analysis and programming that emphasizes economic diversification, income redistribution, health and education improvement, institutional strengthening and the development of an active citizenry, could assist to prevent violent conflict in those countries at greater risk. Of course, the global community, including governments, multilateral organizations and civil society groups, has to also demonstrate the political will, not to mention financial support, to actively pursue such a direction. So far, we haven't yet seen the kind of coordinated commitment and action that is necessary for conflict prevention to truly work.

A recent World Bank report, "Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy" (2003), persuasively argues that economic characteristics of a country have a greater impact on the likelihood of violent conflict than is currently recognized. In fact, the report asserts that civil war should be viewed as the failure of development. While an emphasis on development would be welcomed to alleviate much suffering in the world, the tools and culture of violence, which is our current global legacy, is not addressed by an emphasis on development alone. Development itself may be a destabilizing force, since it modifies the status quo. A strategy to manage the conflict emerging from instability must also be considered in the development plan.

The relationship between development and conflict is multifaceted and complex. Looking at many of the countries currently experiencing violent conflict, it is clear that a lack of development - economic and social, as well as institutional - has contributed to the conflict. Yet, once conflict has broken out, addressing root causes of underdevelopment is often not enough to end the war. Nor is it enough to build the peace. So how can it be enough to prevent war?

Analysis and programming in conflict prevention need to take into account international, regional, national and local conditions. For example, the easy acquisition of small arms to fuel civil wars is not merely a national problem. In Africa, reducing small arms must be a project taken on at a regional level, as well as at the national and local. Moreover, programming does have to engage at macro, meso and micro levels - meaning that institutions need to be developed and/or strengthened at the same time as local community capacity to participate in new institutions is being nurtured. Short, medium and long term needs must be planned for at the same time, so that development can follow a path that moves in a single direction. This may mean that conflict management programs and education are planned for before economic redistribution strategies are developed, for example.

The field of conflict prevention is in its own developmental phase. It is beginning to be enriched through multidisciplinary dialogue and research. For the practitioner, policy maker and researcher in the field, it is an exciting time for learning.

CIIAN NEWS FEATURE: TWO CANADIAN UNIVERSITY CONFLICT STUDIES PROGRAMS                                                                                                                              


Graduate Certificate in CR
Ottawa, Ontario

Conflict is an inevitable part of life. In our increasingly complex and diverse society, when conflict is not properly addressed, it can destroy relationships, paralyze organizations and lead to costly and oftentimes ineffective litigation. Knowing how to recognize and deal effectively with conflict is an essential management tool and life skill. While many organizations continue to view conflict as a problem, an increasing number of managers are recognizing conflict as an opportunity to enhance relationships by engaging stakeholders in collaborative and creative problem solving.

Carleton University's Graduate Certificate program in Conflict Resolution (GCCR) has been helping working professionals develop a set of core competencies to understand and effectively intervene in conflict situations since 1997. This specialized graduate level program provides educators, health care workers, social workers, law enforcement officials, human resource professionals, lawyers, and managers in public, private-sector and not-for-profit organizations with the tools they need to enhance their performance and achieve more desirable outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Professionals already experienced in conflict resolution learn new and more effective techniques as well as gain a better understanding of the principles that underlie their application. The GCCR program is recognized with academic credits at the graduate level.

The GCCR program combines an interdisciplinary study of the theoretical foundations of conflict resolution with practical skill development. As a student in this program you will learn to:

  • understand the nature of conflict;
  • recognize conflict and situations that have the potential for conflict;
  • analyze conflict situations;
  • assist parties in designing effective means to resolve their conflicts;
  • facilitate conflict resolution; and,
  • continuously improve your ability to approach and intervene in conflict situations.

The aim of the GCCR program is to enable students to understand conflict and intervene in conflict situations to help empower individuals, groups and organizations better resolve conflict. Emphasis is directed toward teaching students to do this interactively, creatively and through the reflective application of knowledge and skills. Courses have academic and professional orientations that emphasize theory-informed and reflective practice. They are summer intensive and offered in an executive-style format with classes having approximately 20 students. Course titles and Faculty include: Theories of Conflict Resolution (Cheryl Picard), Introduction to Conflict Resolution and Mediation (Rena Ramkay), Advanced Conflict Resolution and Mediation (Cheryl Picard), Organizational Conflict (Michael Lang), Multi-party, Multi-issue Conflict Resolution and Consensus Building (Larry Sherman).

Assessment is a critical component of the GCCR program and throughout the program; students are encouraged to reflect on the development of their skills through an Independent Learning Initiative (ILI). The ILI offers individually focused strategies to enhance students' skills as effective conflict managers, mediators, and communicators. Furthermore, after completion of course work, students participate in an assessment of their ability to integrate theory and practice in a simulated real-life situation and receive feedback from faculty and CR professionals on their readiness to work in the field.

Applicants must normally have an Honours BA. Special permission for admission may be granted on the basis of experience and related training. For information about applying, courses and fees, please visit our web site at Or, contact Dr. Cheryl Picard, Director, Graduate Certificate in Conflict Resolution, Department of Law Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6 Canada, Tel: (613) 520-3690 Fax: (613) 520-4467 Email:
Peace and Conflict Studies

ROYAL ROADS UNIVERSITY                                                                                      Top
Victoria, British Columbia

Royal Roads University has developed innovative and relevant programs that provide professionals with the theoretical knowledge and understanding required to help manage conflict and craft solutions for real world problems. The division of Peace and Conflict Studies at RRU offers two Master of Arts programs, an undergraduate completion degree, a graduate diploma and several executive education programs. The programs are designed for working professionals and the degree programs are offered over two years through a combination of Internet studies and short residencies at RRU's campus in Victoria, B.C.

The MA in Conflict Analysis and Management is an interdisciplinary program that provides both the theoretical and practical skills necessary to identify, analyze, and manage group conflict in a variety of international and domestic arenas. In addition to core courses, learners have the opportunity for focused study in one of the areas of concentration offered by the division:

  • Political, ethnic and security conflict management;
  • International trade and commercial conflict management;
  • Organizational conflict management;
  • Environmental conflict management;
  • Community and school conflict management; and,
  • International peacekeeping.

The Human Security and Peacebuilding program is designed to produce international leaders in humanitarian intervention, social reconstruction, peacemaking, or peacebuilding. Created for those who work overseas in zones of potential conflict or where intrastate conflict has occurred, this interdisciplinary program provides both theoretical and practical skills necessary to help build peace and restore civil society to fractured countries. The program also features two unique elements: every learner will be matched with a mentor in the field and every learner without significant international peace building experience will undertake a six-month professional field practice with an overseas organization.

The Bachelor of Arts in Justice Studies is designed for those who wish to work in the broad area of justice services where a law degree is not required. This degree completion program (years three and four) provides the general knowledge and skills required by justice service workers in Canada or abroad, including those working with Aboriginal peoples. It also provides a solid education for learners who intend to continue with law school or graduate studies in criminology, sociology, political science, or with graduate work in Peace and Conflict Studies at Royal Roads University.

The graduate diploma in conflict analysis and management provides substantial coverage of the theoretical foundation and intervention strategies in the field of conflict analysis and management. In addition to core courses, learners have the opportunity for focused study in one of the areas of concentration offered by the division. Learners who wish to continue their studies towards completion of the MA in Conflict Analysis and Management are granted full advanced credit in this program.

The division also offers three executive education programs:

  • Planning together: an exploration of cultural, legal, environmental and practical aspects of harmonized land-use planning;
  • Managing Public Conflicts: negotiation and dispute resolution for public officials; and,
  • Managing Conflict in the Workplace.

Customized executive education programs can also be arranged. For more information about the peace and conflict programs at RRU, check or e-mail

Bridging Troubled Waters: Conflict Resolution from the Heart.                                        Top
Michelle LeBaron
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.
Review by Peter Bishop

Most conflict students and practitioners will have some experience with using metaphor and story in some way. However, for many of us, using ritual in mediation may seem completely new.

Michelle's LeBaron's book Bridging Troubled Waters: Conflict Resolution from the Heart is about exploring conflict creatively and relationally. For LeBaron, every encounter with conflict is a group expedition within which we use our whole selves - our minds, bodies, hearts and spirits - individually and collectively. Each expedition occurs within the context of our unique, yet universal, life's journey. This book is intended to introduce us to our own process of discovering what we need to be and become a "good" conflict expedition guide.

Reading the book is itself an excursion into a limitless realm of imagery, imagination, activity and connectivity. Each excursion into it gives us, as readers, an opportunity to go wherever we choose to go, within it or beyond it.

In a nutshell, the book has four parts:

Part 1: Outline of a creative, relational approach to conflict, including LeBaron's seven principles of that approach;
Part 2: Four creative ways of knowing as resources for bridging conflict;
Part 3: Three types of creative tools for bridging conflict meanings and identities; and,
Part 4: Third-party roles and practices of a conflict expedition guide.

The creative, relational, artful approach presented by LeBaron does not reject the scientific approach and the analytical methods and tools that most of us have been trained in and have used as our primary stock in trade. Rather, the holistic, creative approach builds on and goes way beyond the traditional scientific approach. For example, creative ways of knowing - emotional and physical feelings, intuition, imagination and human connection - are ways to supplement the old stand-by, the scientific method of observation and deduction, that has been the mainstay of the Western world for several centuries. The important thing that this book makes clear is that a holistic approach to conflict bridging and guiding requires that we develop and use all of these capacities, these ways of knowing and discovering, and not let any one way preclude or limit another.

Part Two is the essential core of the book. It presents and illustrates capacities and resources we need as creative conflict explorers in relational realms. Emotional intelligence and fluency, somatic (physiological) capacities - senses and sensations - imagination, intuition and what LeBaron calls "connected ways of knowing - ways often unacknowledged yet as vital as the food we eat. Together, emotional, physical, imaginative, and connected ways of knowing are facets of creativity essential to resolving conflict. The heart, body and imagination in dialogue with the head provide us reliable ways through conflict resolution. Connected ways of knowing are the hub of the wheel …" (page 138).

Why are these capacities of heart, body, imagination and spirit essential to relational conflict explorers? Some aspects of conflict are observable and scientifically knowable and some are not. We may speak of dimensions of conflict that are subconscious, intangible or even transcendent. As LeBaron says, our modern 20th-century Western world trusted and accepted as reliable only scientific ways of knowing. However, our 21st-century postmodern world is starting to recognize and explore new ways of knowing - of accessing the "invisible" sources of deep-rooted conflict. As LeBaron illustrates, these creative ways of knowing are real and valid capacities that all people have and that all of us can develop and apply at some level.

"Connected ways of knowing, centered in relationship, remind us that conflicts are part of relational systems. The ways we construct our identities and relate to each other are informed by our ways of making meaning … we come to know ourselves through relationships and the stories we co-create. Only by making the invisible visible, by naming and exploring meanings related to conflicts, can we address issues connected to who we believe we are and how we see the world. Conflicts that matter, that may be difficult to resolve, always involve this meaning-making level." (Page 138-139)

LeBaron helps us to realize that connected ways of "knowing", drawing on head, heart, body and spirit, are really ways of co-creating, ways that participants in the process make meaning together. These acts of "knowing", of making meaning together, are themselves the bridges that transform the conflict. In this, I believe that LeBaron's creative, holistic approach fundamentally breaks with the traditional scientific approach. In the latter, we separate discovery and understanding from negotiating, changing and "fixing". That is why we have structured our mediation process in stages.

Part Three of Bridging Troubled Waters presents three types of creative tools for bridging conflict meanings and identities:
(1) Symbolic Tools: Metaphors as windows into other worlds;
(2) Narrative Tools: Stories as Paths to Transformation; and,
(3) Commemorating Tools: Using Ritual.

As LeBaron says: "We need creative tools because they have currency in the places where meaning is made and where expression is symbolic - levels not easily accessible through analysis. … Metaphor, ritual and story are tools to access this level." (Page 181). Chapters Six, Seven and Eight are a useful and systematic presentation of these three types of tools, both what they are and how, why and when they can be used in conflict training and intervention situations. Metaphors are windows and stories are pathways that allow parties in conflict to see and go to the otherwise inaccessible troubled waters of their conflict and to do that together.

Most conflict students and practitioners will have some experience with using metaphor and story in some way. However, for many of us, using ritual in mediation may seem completely new. Most of us will be familiar with circle processes and can appreciate their ritual dimension. Beyond that, the notion of ritual may bring to mind candles, soft music, magic and mysticism. However, rituals pervade all human interaction, including how we meet and greet, take our leave and form and end relationships. Broadly speaking, a ritual is any activity that has some symbolic meaning.

The first part of Chapter Eight illustrates the use of ritual:

  • to make or mark meaning;
  • as a tool for transition;
  • as a vehicle for creating community; and
  • as a way to change identities.

The last part of Chapter Eight is a very useful discussion of creating (improvising or designing) rituals in conflict situations. According to LeBaron: "Rituals work best when they are personal to involved parties or when they catch the spirit of the group. So a ritual relating to healing may work well with physicians, whereas a ritual involving harmony may work well with musicians or environmentalists" (page 274). The examples described in this chapter include drawing, playing a particular piece of music, gathering in different rooms, prayer, and silence or symbolic activity at the beginning of a joint session.

Part Four of Bridging Troubled Waters is a discussion of some third-party roles and practices of a conflict expedition guide. This relatively short section of 23 pages addresses what a third party needs "in the way of resources for the journey through conflict", practices for developing third party skill, wisdom and leadership and ability and creativity to "help compose creative interventions". The last few pages of the book is a list of practice tips for "integrating multiple ways of knowing" into a mediation process. As we might expect, the creative holistic approach to bridging conflict requires third party practitioners to be fluid and flexible, empathic and attentive, open, curious and spacious and very much attuned to the creative opportunities for transition and transformation that exist in every conflict.

In the last Part of the book, we re-visit the seven mountains, which were introduced in Part One as the principles of a creative, relational approach to conflict. In Part One, LeBaron identified seven principles of a creative, relational approach to conflict, which she named as seven mountains. Making these principles mountains rather than, say, guiding lights or beacons (which is the metaphor I have used previously for guiding principles of mediation) is very interesting. In effect, LeBaron says that for each of us to really understand and live these principles in a way that is meaningful and applicable for us as conflict guides, we need to climb each mountain and survey our world from the context and height of that mountain. We learn going up each mountain and we learn coming back down. And, we learn something new each time we scale one of them.

Whereas Parts Two and Three of the book are about the places we go and the things we do as conflict explorers, Part One is about being - our being and becoming a conflict guide. The seven mountains are: Circle Mountain (a holistic approach), Heart Mountain (relationship as resource), Magic Mountain (welcoming surprises), Goldmine Mountain (involving our whole selves), Noble Mountain (being our teachings), Mirror Mountain (transcending limitations), Invention Mountain (creative tools). By climbing and spending time on each of these seven mountains, we grow in the vision, resourcefulness, balance, integrity and courage we need to seek and confront the forces of human conflict. According to Michelle LeBaron, each of these mountains is a dimension of creative conflict practice that we may use as a perspective to reflect on and cultivate our ongoing growth and development as conflict explorers and conflict guides.

RPDR Profile: Francine Titley                                                                                             Top

Before describing my journey since obtaining my certificate from CIIAN in 1996, I would like to say how much I enjoyed and appreciated the courses offered in this program. The concepts and practices taught and modeled by the professional facilitators and staff have had a profound impact on my life. From a very competitive, positional, judgmental and "monologuistc" mind-set, I have moved and continue to move towards a more collaborative, open, flexible and 'curious' way of being which adds richness and meaning to my life every day. Thank you CIIAN for this extraordinary opportunity!

My work experience has been very diverse since 1996. The 1st challenge I accepted was working with other professionals, teachers and students setting up peer mediation programs in schools in the Ottawa area. Using methods learned from the Children's Creative Response to Conflict group, we developed age-appropriate and dynamic training that was well received by the students. The experience of working with young people was very gratifying. I recently ran into a former student-mediator and asked him: "What is one thing you remember from this experience?" to which he replied: "There are always two sides to every story." What a difference it would make in the world if people simply stopped to listen and acknowledge the other's story as this young person had learned to do!

At about the same time, I started volunteering at the Dispute Resolution Centre, a victim-offender diversion program, founded by Carole Eldrige and Denise Moore, two very knowledgeable and respected professionals in the field. This was my first experience in mediation and some of the most memorable moments of my career relate back to this period of my life. I am reminded in particular of a young woman, mother of two small children, who sustained serious, permanent bodily injuries as a result of a motor vehicle accident caused by a drunk driver. After two lengthy sessions a year apart between her and the offender, she was able to offer forgiveness to this man. To paraphrase her words, his sincere remorse and concrete efforts to transform his life and become a productive member of society gave meaning to her pain and grief, making it more bearable. The memory of these moments still moves me deeply.
Such experiences prompted me to pursue training in family mediation. I was fortunate to be part of a pilot project that led to my certification as a 'Comprehensive Family Mediator' in 1998. This, in turn, led to my involvement with UFC Professionals Inc., a group of very experienced family mediators providing provincially subsidized mediation services for the Family Court and to the Ottawa public. I also became a member of the Superior Court of Justice roster as well as the Ontario and Canadian Human Rights Commission rosters.

In addition to my mediation practice, I have developed and delivered innumerable workshops in both official languages for the public sector and private industry in conflict management, interest-based communication/negotiation, anger management and mediation. My use of visual aids, which solicit both sides of the brain and facilitate learning, make my training rather unique. For the last seven years, I have also been coordinating, with Professor John Manwering, the negotiation and mediation course for 1st year law students registered in the French program.

The last two years, I have become acquainted with the narrative approach to mediation. I find these practices complement well the interest-based and transformative approaches. Although some have emphasized the differences between these practices, I have focused on commonalities and complementariness. The narrative practices of seeing people as experts in their own lives, of treating problems as separate from them and of navigating between the landscape of action and of meaning have made a critical difference in my practice, especially when parties are caught in the grip of destructive patterns of interaction. I am proud to have become a member of the Glebe Institute, directed by David Paré and Mishka Lysack, which specializes in narrative practices and advocates for just relationships and healthy communities.

Last year I was blessed once again to meet an extraordinary person, Sylvie Lamoureux, who has since become a friend and associate. Sylvie, who, like me, is a lawyer by training, comes with a very rich and diverse life experience in management and leadership in the public and private sectors. Together we have formed the firm Titley-Lamoureux & Associates and offer bilingual mediation, training and coaching services. I am looking forward to this new chapter of my life.

R                                                                                                                                              Top
egistered Practitioners in Dispute Resolution

1. Peter Bishop (613) 567-5537
2. Enid Blackwell (613) 623-3053
3. Norman Ross (416) 964-8389
4. Herve Depow (613) 592-0807
5. Francine Titley (613) 748-1243
6. Doreen Hartley (613) 547-2920
7. Mel Mapp (519) 679-6642
8. Mike Hart (613) 258-8024
9. Gilles Boudreau (819) 994-7360
10. Michelle Plouffe (613) 996-0431
11. Cynthia Leber (416) 486-2363
12. Laura Deeks (King) (416) 954-7166
13. Margaret Kish (905) 509-4861
14. Marion Rivers (613) 837-9761
15. Genevieve O Sullivan (613) 230-6103
16. Michel Laurin (819) 568-7810
17. Anna Preto (416) 973-5704
18. Gérald Lavallée (613) 230-5442
19. John Blakney (604) 264-0235
20. Donna Clark (902) 832-9667
21. Christiane Boisjoly (867) 668-6794
22. Barbara Atlas (416) 954-7632
23. Mary Rozenberg (613) 224-0037
24. Suzanne Beaulieu (613) 733-5176
25. Brian Ross (613) 729-8363
26. Rebecca Dalton (519) 439-0874
27. Louise Owen (250) 385-0536
28. Walter Williams (613) 822-1738
29. Ken Petersen (705) 264-5321
30. Jean Benoit (418) 871-8928
31. Ginette Trottier (514) 283-2514
32. Joanne Archibald (705) 495-2271
33. Ross Landry (613) 993-5035)
34. Maureen McKeown (519) 641-2264)
35. Blaine Donais (416) 979-2709 ext. 3007

The above named practitioners are registered with the Canadian International Institute of Applied Negotiation (CIIAN). Registration attests to the fact that they have successfully completed the Institute's 120 hour program and submitted a Practitioner's Portfolio which includes subscription to a code of practice. The Institute, however, is not a governing body and is not responsible for the practice of those listed. We do, however, provide these names to potential clients.

RPDR Faculty
Richard Moore (613) 230-8671
Rena Ramkay (613) 521-6591
Heidi N. Ruppert (613) 567-5065
Flaurie Storie (613) 769-7595

UPCOMING CIIAN COURSES...                                                                                        Top

Module I August 19-22, 2003
February 16-19, 2004
August 17-20, 2004

Module II August 25-28, 2003
March 22-25, 2004
August 23-26, 2004

Module III October 20-23, 2003
October 18-21, 2004

Module IV November 24-27, 2003
November 22-25, 2003


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